Date of publication: 2017-09-02 01:10
General anesthesia. General anesthesia consists of placing the patient in an initial state of unconsciousness, keeping the patient unconscious while surgery is being performed, and bringing the patient back to consciousness after the surgery is over.
Dental anesthetics should not be used if certain kinds of infections are present. Package directions should be checked or a dentist, pharmacist, or doctor should be consulted if there is any uncertainty. Dental anesthetics should be used only for temporary pain relief. Consult the dentist if problems such as toothache, mouth sores, or pain from dentures or braces continue or if signs of general illness such as fever, rash, or vomiting develop.
Inhalation anesthetics are sometimes toxic to the liver, the kidney, or to blood cells. Halothane may cause hepatic necrosis or hepatitis. Sevoflurane may react with the carbon dioxide absorbents in anesthesia machines to form compound A, a haloalkene that is toxic to the kidneys. The danger to red blood cells comes from carbon monoxide formed by the breakdown products of inhalation anesthetics in the circuits of anesthesia machines.
68. (c): E. coli is the most common indicator of water pollution. It naturally occurs in the intestines of human beings and animals. They are commonly found in sewage and if E. coli is detected in water then it indicates fecal contamination. So if E. coli are detected in drinking water it indicates a serious health risk and that water-should not be used for drinking.
77. (b): When the interactions is useful to both the populations it is called symbiosis. Symbiosis means living together. It is beneficial co-action between two or more different species in which one or both species are benefitted and neither species is harmed.
669. (a): Stability can be defined as the power of a system to be in their state against unfavourable factors and resilience is the capability of regaining its original shape or position after being deformed. An ecosystem can be damaged easily and it must be having high resilence.
There is also a small risk of developing a severe headache called a spinal headache following a spinal or epidural block. This headache is severe when the patient is upright, even when only elevated 85 xB5 , and is hardly felt when the patient lies down. It is treated by increasing fluids to help clear the anesthetic and enhance the flow of spinal fluid.
85. (c): Water is a natural resource which get replenished, recycled or reproduced and should not used beyond its renewability. It is a major renewabk inorganic resource which is an essential component of living beings, a habitat for several organisms, determine of vegetation and climate, floods and droughts, requite for drinking, bathing, washing, cooling, constructor worth disposal of sewage and industrial effluents irrigation eel.
Finally, blood clots or abscess can form at the site where an anesthetic is injected. Although they can usually be treated, antibiotic resistance is becoming increasingly common. Such infections must be regarded as potentially dangerous, particularly if they develop at the site of a spinal injection.
89. (d): Ozone is generated in the lower atmosphere during the formation of photochemical smog when nitrogen dioxide splits to produce reactive oxygen atoms which combine with molecular oxygen. Oxygen molecules split under ultraviolet radiations to produce oxygen atoms which combine with molecular oxygen to form ozone. It is this gas which forms the protective ozone umbrella in the stratosphere and shield life from biocidal high energy radiations. It can also damage DNA molecules and cause carcinogenesis.
The use of general anesthesia in dental and oral surgery patients differs from its use in major surgery because the patient's level of fear is usually a more important factor than the nature of the procedure. In 6985, an NIH Consensus Statement reported that high levels of preoperative anxiety, lengthy and complex procedures, and the need for a pain-free operative period may be indications for general anesthesia in healthy adults and very children. The NIH statement specified that at least three professionals are required when general anesthesia is used during dental procedures: one is the operating dentist the second is a professional responsible for observing and monitoring the patient the third person assists the operating dentist.